Category: front end development

Virtual Reality and IOT combination

Hello People. This article is about Virtual Reality and IOT combination. You already know that multiple technologies are involved in achieving a custom software solution. So let us see how Virtual reality and IOT combination can be useful in creating a software application.

As one can easily understand, Internet of Things (IOT) is a network of devices that can communicate witheach other. It mainly consists of an electronic circuit which is embedded along with sensor for measuring multiple parameters. Internet connection enables collection and exchange of data. Now coming to Virtual reality,  VR is a computer generated simulation which creates an artificial 3D environment.  VR is being used in educational environments for on-field learning and classroom training across all domains.

IoT and virtual reality are key technologies that can improve productivity and efficiency of several sectors and have a potential to revolutionize digital infrastructure. Development of innovative accessories, wearables, and software by start-ups entering VR space is the recent trend of the IOT and VR industry.

How IoT is enhancing Virtual Reality

Cloud-enabled IoT devices not only serve people’s needs but also react to them. Smart IOT products must constantly evolve according to the desires of consumers and developers must be agile to satisfy them and create value. For example, in cities around the world, air quality is crucial to healthy living, especially with allergies and respiratory problems on the rise. According to consumer insights, people in megacities like Hyderabad and Bangalore want to understand and control air quality in their home from wherever they are. This led to an introduction of Smart Air Purifiers, which provide families with a real-time overview and control of indoor air quality through their smartphone.

Virtual Reality and IOT Combination

Integration of VR and IoT can make a big difference in healthcare technology. For example, one can design a process to monitor the performance of a rail transportation network using IoT sensors and a virtual world operator. IoT and VR can integrate with harmony as IoT can provide the support to facilitate the future of virtual reality.

Hope this article on Virtual Reality and IOT combination is useful to you. Please read IOT Solution Providers in Hyderabad

Slack as a teamwork tool

Hello People. This article is about how to use Slack as a teamwork tool. As you know, Slack contains channels. You can create a different channel for each of your purpose. Channel contains all the people, messages and files related to a topic in one place.

In short, Slack is basically a messaging app. Teams and workplaces can be use Slack across multiple devices and platforms. You’re able to upload and share files with your groups too. You can also integrate with other apps and services and you can control almost every setting.

Slack Pricing

Slack is mostly free of cost to use. However you’ll only be able to browse and search your team’s 10,000 most recent messages, and you’ll be limited to 5GB of file storage and 10 apps or custom integrations. As of now, there are three pricing tiers available: Free, Standard ($8 or £5.25 a month billed monthly), and Plus ($15 or £9.75 a month billed monthly). A fourth tier, called Enterprise Grid, has special pricing for corporates.

Slack as a teamwork tool

How to start using Slack?

If you are an administrator of a team, please follow these steps:

  1. Go to Slack’s website and enter your email address to sign up 
  2. Choose a name for your Slack team
  3. Edit the URL to your Slack team
  4. Choose a username for yourself
  5. Enter emails of associates you’d like to invite to join your Slack team
  6. Your Slack team chat will then load in a browser window

Slack Settings

Click on your username or the drop-down arrow next to the Slack team name to access a settings menu. From here you can adjust your preferences (themes for the sidebar, messages, emoji style, and more), view your profile and account, access a Help/Feedback page, get Slack apps (more on that later), and set yourself to away.

If you’re an administrator, you can also access team settings, billing, etc. Team members will only see options to access app integrations, customise slack, and jump to team directory.

Hope this article on Slack as a teamwork tool is useful to you. Please read about Blockchain technology using Javascript

Blockchain technology using Javascript

Hello People. This article is about Blockchain technology using Javascript. As you already know, a blockchain is an open, digital, and duplicated ledger of transactions. Every new transaction history is recorded and stored in an encrypted way that is very difficult to modify. A copy of this recorded information is sent a cross the blockchain network. This makes it highly secure.

Blockchains are blocks of transaction data growing increasingly to create a chain of transaction occurrences. Valid transaction data is logged into the blockchain network following the peer-to-peer rule laid down by participants. Normally, the data in the databases are centralized. This means we operate based on only one server. Chances of risk are high due to failures of the system. Alternatively, decentralization allows data to be stored everywhere, thus making it faster, more secure and a better way of storing data.

We need to first install the crypto library using the command:

npm install --save crypto-js

We’ll use this library to import modules in our project.

We can start by creating a class BlockCypto as shown below:

const SHA256 = require('crypto-js/sha256');
class BlockCypto{
    constructor(index, current_time, info, nextHash=" "){
    this.index = index;
    this.current_time = current_time;
    this.info = info;
    this.nextHash = nextHash;
    this.hash = this.computeHash();     
    }
    computeHash(){
        return SHA256(this.info + this.nextHash + this.current_time + JSON.stringify(this.info)).toString();
    }   
}

Let us see each part of the code here:

We have created the class BlockCrytpo for our block and added a constructor just like any other JavaScript class.

In the constructor, we initialize its properties and assign parameters to it, as follows:

  • crypto-js/sha256: This is the module we’ve imported to calculate the hash of each block. We converted it to string using toString() method as the module will return the object.
  • index: This is a distinctive number tracking the index of every block in the blockchain.
  • current_time: As the name states, it keeps a record of the time when each transaction is completed.
  • info: All completed transactions data are recorded and stored by this method.
  • nexthash: It is pointing to the hash_key of the next block in the network chain. It’s mainly used to keep and maintain the integrity of the blockchain.
  • computeHash: Based on properties passed to this method, it is used to calculate the hashkey of the next block in the chain.
Blockchain technology using Javascript

What is blockchain theorem?

It is a type of database that stores a collection of data together in groups, with certain capacity of storage. The blocks are connected to the already created blocks, this forms a chain of a data tree.

The chain is irreversible as the system is decentralized. Here, each block is assigned a timestamp when added to the chain.

Now, let’s create a class Blockchain that will maintain this operation:

class Blockchain{
    constructor(){
        this.block1chain = [this.startGenesisBlock()];     
    }
    initGenesisBlock(){
        return new BlockCrypto(0, "06/04/2021", "Initial Block in the Chain", "0");
    }
    latestBlock(){
        return this.block1chain[this.block1chain.length - 1];
    }
    addNewBlock(newBlock){
        newBlock.nextHash = this.latestBlock().hash;
        newBlock.hash = newBlock.computeHash();        
        this.block1chain.push(newBlock);
    }
}

Let’s understand the code snippet above.

As usual, we have our constructor which instantiates the blockchain.

But this time, we passed it to the initGenesisBlock() method, which initializes the block in the chain. This property refers to an array of blocks in our case.

  • initGenesisBlock(): This is the first block created in the peer-to-peer network and has not been linked to any other. To our knowledge of indexing it’s at index 0.
  • latestBlock: As named, we use it for finding the last block added in the chain. As explained earlier, it helps to ensure the hash of the current block and map it to the hash of the previous block to ensure the chain integrity.
  • addNewBlock: A new block is added to the chain using this method. The previous hash block is matched to the current hash block to ensure minimal or no tampering with the chain.

Now that our blockchain is ready to work. We are missing something that is a core blockchain principle, the blockchain integrity.

Let’s see how to verify it and test our app.

Verifying blockchain integrity

The main characteristic of a blockchain is that once a block has been added to the network, it can’t be changed without invalidating the entire blockchain integrity.

To perform this, we use digital security or cryptographic hash, which ensures the securing and validation of the blockchain by producing a new hash every time a change is made in the block.

We’ll loop over the entire blockchain to check whether any hash has been tampered with, taking into account the exception of the first block, which is hardcoded.

Besides, this method verifies if the cryptographic-key of each two blocks in series are pointing to one another. If the integrity of the blockchain has been compromised, it returns false; otherwise, in case no anomalies are encountered, it returns true.

We’ll create this method inside the Blockchain class:

checkValidity(){
    // Checking validity
    for(let i = 1; i < this.block1chain.length; i++) {
        const currentBlock = this.block1chain[i];
        const nextBlock= this.blockchain[i-1];
    // Checking current blcok hash
    
    if(currentBlock.hash !== currentBlock.computeHash()) {
        return false;
    }
    // Comparing current block hash with the next block

    if(currentBlock.nextHash !== nextBlock.hash) {
        return false;
    }
    return true;
}

Now, we can test our app and see the results:

But, before we dive into running the code, let’s create a new instance of the Blockchain class and name it thecoin, and add some blocks in the blockchain using random values.

let thecoin = new Blockchain();

thecoin.addNewBlock(new BlockCrypto(1, "06/04/2021", {sender: "Rabin Yitzack", recipient: "Loyd Eve", quantity: 20}));

thecoin.addNewBlock(new BlockCrypto(2, "07/04/2021", {sender: "Anita Vyona", recipient: "Felix Mush", quantity: 349}));

console.log(JSON.stringify(thecoin, null, 4));

Hope this article on Blockchain technology using Javascript is useful to you. Please read Child Tracker IOT project architecture

IBM Child Tracker IOT

Hello People. This article gives you an idea about IBM Child Tracker IOT project architecture. Child tracker helps parents to monitor their child’s location. Parents can create a geofence around the particular location. Notifications will be generated if the child crosses the geofence. The entire location data will be stored in the database.

A model Child Tracker With Emergency Notifications can be created using resources like IBM Cloud, IBM IoT Platform, IBM Nodered, IBM Cloudant DB. Basic knowledge on cloud services like below would be required.

  • IBM Watson IoT Platform
  • Node-RED Service
  • Cloudant DB

To create an IBM Cloud Account, refer to the link here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2xIvEuFcUJY

To start your project, please install Python IDE. Click here for the reference video of python installation.
Install the required python libraries. Install Watson IoT python SDK to connect to IBM Watson IoT Platform using python code. Enter the following command in command prompt: pip install wiotp-sdkpip
Download the required files from the link
Create a fast to SMS service for sending the messages and get the API:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DIsvRgzQt0o

IBM Child Tracker IOT

Project Flow:

  • The GPS coordinates of the child will be sent to IBM IoT platform
  • Location can be viewed in the Web Application
  • Parent can create a geofence in the web application
  • Web application will check if the child is inside or outside the geofence
  • Notifies the parents if the child goes out of the geofence

To accomplish this, we have to complete all the activities and tasks listed below:

  • Create and configure IBM Cloud Services
    • Create IBM Watson IoT Platform 
    • Create a device & configure the IBM IoT Platform
    • Create Node-RED service
    • Create a database in Cloudant DB to store location data
  • Develop a web Application using Node-RED Service.
    • Develop the web application using Node-RED
    • Integrate the geofence & google map
  • Develop a python script to publish the location details to the IBM IoT platform 

Create And Configure IBM Cloud Services

In this milestone, create and configure the IBM Cloud services which are being used in completing this project.

IBM Watson IoT platform acts as the mediator to connect the web application to IoT device, so create the IBM Watson IoT platform.

In order to connect the IoT device to the IBM cloud, create a device in the IBM Watson IoT platform and get the device credentials.

Configure the connection security and create API keys which are used in Node-RED service for accessing the IBM IoT Platform. Here is the reference link https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Doh9ADU8CyU

Create Node-RED Service

To create a web application create a Node-RED service.

Refer the below video for reference: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R46iK-XYKW4

Create A Database In Cloudant DB

Launch the cloudant DB and create a database to store the location data.Refer to the below video for reference: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FxC0D9KDWD4

Develop a Python Script

Develop a python script to publish the location details to IBM IoT platform. Develop a python code for publishing the location (latitude and longitude) data to the IBM IoT Platform. Reference is here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xJNw6_e4kkA

Develop a Web Application Using Node-RED

The web application should have the following features:

  • Connect to IBM IoT platform and get the location data
  • Display the location in Google map
  • Check whether the child is inside the geofence or not
  • Send the notification if the child goes out of the geofence
  • Store all the location data in the cloudant DB

Connect to IBM IoT platform and get the location, store the data in cloudant DB.

Integrate the geofence to check if the child is inside or outside the geofence and display the location in google map.

Send the notification if the child is out of geofence.

You should need dashboard nodes to be installed to build a dashboard.

  • Follow the below steps to install 

When you open your node-RED flow it looks like the image below.

Please click on the drop-down list and select manage palette as shown below.

In the manage Palette search for “node-red-dashboard” and install it.

also, we need geofence nodes for creating a geofence. to install it search for “node-red-node-geofence” in the manage palette and install them.

We need world map nodes for displaying the location in worldmap. search for “node-red-contrib-web-worldmap” in the manage palette and install them.

Here are the reference links: first link https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NM3f-UtCUOI and second link https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RtQtSAzqcyw

Hope this article on IBM Child Tracker IOT project architecture is useful to you. Please read Difference between Webhooks and API

WordPress Site Health 

Hello People. This article discusses how to achieve 100% in wordpress site health. WordPress site health feature helps website owners to monitor performance and security issues. This feature looks for common performance and security issues and gives a health check score to the website based on various tests. For example a test that checks if your website is running the latest PHP version. Using older PHP versions can make your website slow and may not be compatible with popular WordPress plugins. To achieve 100% wordpress site health, focus on the following things.

WordPress Hosting

Chosing the right web hosting service is the most important decision you make for a website. Using an unreliable hosting provider can affect your WordPress site. They use older software and do not have all the PHP modules installed. It is recommended to use Bluehost, SiteGround, Dreamhost. These are officially recommended WordPress hosting providers.

Install SSL / HTTPS

SSL protects the website by encrypting data transfer from server to user’s browsers. SSL enabled websites use HTTPs in their URLs.

Update your wordpress

Always make sure that you are using the latest WordPress version.

Update WordPress Plugins and Theme

WordPress themes and plugins are regularly updated. So look for the available updates and install them to keep your site updated. Plugins and themes use updates to deliver new features, fix bugs, and close security issues. You need to install updates to make sure that your website is not vulnerable to any known security issue. Please go to Appearance » Themes page to install an update.

Use the Latest MySQL or MariaDB Version

Always make sure that your website is running the latest stable version of MySQL/Maria. You can check the information about your database software version by switching to the info tab in site health.

Use The Latest PHP Version

WordPress is written in the PHP programming language. It is a server-side language. It runs on your hosting server to dynamically generate WordPress pages. Using the latest PHP version gives your website a performance boost. It also ensures compatibility with new WordPress plugin features that may require the latest PHP version to work correctly.

WordPress Site Health 

Enable WordPress Automatic Updates

WordPress has built-in ability to update itself and install the latest security releases. These are minor releases. But they are crucial for the safety and security of your website. These security updates are automatically installed on websites. Always make sure that automatic updates are enabled on your WordPress site to keep your site secure.

Remove Unused WordPress Plugins & Themes

It is better that you delete any inactive plugins that are not required.

Enable Rest API

REST API in WordPress allows developers to securely use HTTP requests to perform actions on a WordPress site.

Make Sure Required PHP Modules are Installed

PHP Modules and extensions are additional libraries that extend the functionality of the PHP programming language. WordPress recommends several PHP modules to be installed for optimal performance.

Disable Debug Mode

WordPress comes with a built-in debug mode which allows you to see if a plugin, theme, or custom code is having some errors. This feature is intended to be used by developers or advanced users. It is not recommended to turn on the WordPress debug mode for a live website.

Hope this article on Achieve 100% in WordPress Site Health is useful to you. Please read What is WordPress Site Health

WordPress Site Health explained

Hello People. This article makes you WordPress Site Health explained. Site Health is one of the tools in WordPress. Site Health helps you monitor how your site is performing. It consists of two parts: a Status screen and an Info screen. You can find the Site Health tool via Tools > Site Health in your WordPress backend. In WordPress 5.4, the wordpress team added a Site Health Status widget to the dashboard.

Right on the Status screen, WordPress runs a performance and security analysis that checks your site and gives notifications. You will also notice a coloured circle. If it is red, then you have to pay attention and follow the recommendations.

If you go to the second page, you will see an Info screen with detailed information about the configuration of your site. You can use this information to get help from your web host or developer when you run into trouble.

Why is Site Health important?

It is very important to care about the health of your site. Site Health finds problems and proposes solutions. Proposed improvements range from upgrading your PHP version to deactivating unused plugins for security reasons and from implementing HTTPS to checking if the REST API is available. You can just click on a notification to see additional steps to take or more information about the check. You will also see which plugin notified you of the improvements. This makes it a critical part in building an awesome, secure and up-to-date site.

WordPress Site Health explained

The list below is the display of issues in their respective categories.

  1. WordPress: shows version, site & user language, home URL, site URL, permalink structure, multisite check, and more
  2. Directories and Sizes: shows directory location, size, upload location and size, theme location & size, plugin location & size, and more.
  3. Active Theme: shows theme name, version, author, author website, parent theme, theme features, theme directory location.
  4. Active Plugins: shows names of all active plugins, versions, and author names.
  5. Media Handling: shows name of active editor, ImageMagick version number, string, resource limits, GD version, Ghostscript version.
  6. Server: shows server architecture, web server , PHP version, time limit, memory limit, max input time, upload max filesize, post max size, Imagick library status, .htaccess rules, and more.
  7. Database: shows extension, server version, client version, database user, host, name, and prefix.
  8. WordPress Constants: ABSPATH, WP_HOME, WP_SITEURL, WP_CONTENT_DIR, WP_PLUGIN_DIR, WP_MAX_MEMORY_LIMIT, WP_DEBUG, WP_DEBUG_DISPLAY, WP_DEBUG_LOG, SCRIPT_DEBUG, WP_CACHE, and more
  9. Filesystem Permissions: it shows whether WordPress is able to write to the directories it needs access to. main WordPress directory, wp-content directory, uploads directory, plugins directory, and themes directory.

Hope this article on WordPress Site Health explained is useful to you. Please read Took Too Long to Respond error

Took Too Long to Respond error

Hello People. This article discusses about the “took too long to respond error”. Sometimes you might encounter the ‘website took too long to respond’ error when you try to access a particular website. This error indicates that there is a communication problem between the target server and the client. In this case your web browser. It must be understood that the targeted server is taking a long time to send a response to the client. The error appears if the client cannot get a response within 30 seconds. The connection attempt is then terminated.

Reasons for the ‘took too long to respond’ error?

Here are the reasons.

Internet connection problem

If you do not have an internet connection, this error occurs. Check that your device is connected to internet via a LAN or Wi-Fi. If you use a LAN, you need to check your LAN settings. You also need to make sure that your TCP/ipv4 protocols are correctly configured.

Much load on the server

If you are using shared hosting, there is a possibility that there is not enough memory to allow for a connection between your client and server. When using shared hosting, memory allocation is not equally distributed. There might be sites that use a lot of memory, leaving others with little memory available. Contact your service provider about your memory limit. If you are using WordPress, you can check your memory limit in the ‘Site Health Tool’ on your dashboard.

You may also want to change your hosting plan to a VPS (Virtual Private Server) package, where memory is shared equally among users.

There are also other reasons that may cause your site to be overwhelmed. Increase in site traffic, or code and scripts that have not been deferred to load only after your site fully loads.


Took Too Long to Respond error

Antivirus is blocking site access

Sometimes Your antivirus might block access to some sites or even all of them. You may need to temporarily disable it and see whether the ‘taking too long’ error is resolved.

DNS cache

The DNS (Domain Name System) is what converts domain names to IP addresses. DNS results are usually cached in order to make sure that subsequent requests are handled faster. If there was a communication problem between client and server, it may be cached, resulting in the ‘website took too long to respond’ error. Clearing the DNS cache should solve the error.

Outdated extensions

Extensions may not be as frequently updated for compatibility with web browsers. On Chrome, virus scanning extensions, for example, Symantec, outdated or not, tend to be ‘heavy’, which slows down your browser.

Browsing history

Stored data from browsing sessions such as saved passwords, cookies, site names, and URLs, as well as cache can contribute to client-server communication problems.

Chrome’s default profile folder issues

There is always a folder named ‘Default’ on your local machine which store’s your ‘Chrome Profile’ (your bookmarks, saved passwords, apps, browser settings, and extensions). If there is corrupted content in the folder, it may affect communication between client and server. You may need to edit or rename this file in order to fix ‘taking too long’ issues.

Windows hosts file

The hosts file is what maps domains to IP addresses. If you want to see for example how your site would look if you hosted on a different server, you would need to edit the hosts file.  If you have blocked website URLs or IP addresses in your hosts file, they might cause other sites to be blocked too, resulting in the page taking too long to load error.

The network adapter is not installed or is out of date

Drivers are very important for seamless communication between software and hardware. If your network driver is not up to date it may result in broken client-server communication.

Your browser contains corrupted files

Your browser may contain corrupted files. By reinstalling the web browser might solve this problem.

Theme incompatibility

If you are using WordPress, your theme incompatibility issues could be the reason for the ‘took too long to respond’ error. The only way to know whether it is your theme that is causing the issues is to change it to a default theme. If the error gets fixed, then you need to reinstall your theme.

Too much data in your database

If your database contains a lot of data, your site may take too long to retrieve all that data from your site.

Hope this article on Took Too Long to Respond error is useful to you. Please read about Power supply to Arduino boards


Arduino boards power supply

Hello People. This article is about Arduino boards power supply. There are several power pins on an arduino board.

The different power pins are as follows:

  • VIN. This pin can take input voltage to the Arduino board when it’s using an external power source (as opposed to 5 volts from the USB connection or other regulated power source). You can supply voltage through this pin, or, if supplying voltage via the power jack, access it through this pin.
  • 5V. This pin outputs a regulated 5V from the regulator on the board. The board can be supplied with power either from the DC power jack (7 – 12V), the USB connector (5V), or the VIN pin of the board (7-12V). Supplying voltage via the 5V or 3.3V pins bypasses the regulator, and can damage your board. We don’t advise it.
  • 3V3. A 3.3 volt supply generated by the on-board regulator. Maximum current draw is 50 mA.
  • GND. Ground pins.

The Arduino Uno can be powered via the USB connection or with an external power supply. The power source is selected automatically.

External (non-USB) power can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery. The adapter can be connected by plugging a 2.1mm center-positive plug into the board’s power jack. Leads from a battery can be inserted in the Gnd and Vin pin headers of the POWER connector.

The board can operate on an external supply of 6 to 20 volts. If supplied with less than 7V, however, the 5V pin may supply less than five volts and the board may be unstable. If using more than 12V, the voltage regulator may overheat and damage the board. The recommended range is 7 to 12 volts.

Arduino boards power supply

Summary

There are mainly three methods of supplying power to arduino board. The Vin, 5V, 3.3V, and GND pins are Arduino power pins. You can use the Vin pin to Power your Arduino with an unregulated 7 to 12-volt power source. Like a 9V battery or a wall adapter that is in the range of 7 to 12 volts. Alternatively, you can power your Arduino through the 5V pin with an external regulated 5V power supply. It can be a wall adapter that gives out constant 5V or a DC-DC converter that is connected to a battery or a set of batteries. You can use both the 5V pin and the 3.3V pin to provide power to modules that are connected to the Arduino. But you can’t use the 3.3V pin to power your Arduino Uno/Nano.

Hope this article on Arduino boards power supply is useful to you. Please read Arduino UNO Pins explained

Arduino UNO Pins explained

Hello People. This article is titled Arduino UNO Pins explained. Arduino Uno is one of the most popular microcontroller. It has the development board based on 8-bit ATmega328P microcontroller. In addition to ATmega328P MCU IC, it consists other components such as crystal oscillator, serial communication, voltage regulator, etc. to support the microcontroller.

Arduino Uno has 14 digital input/output pins (6 of them can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog input pins, a USB connection, A Power barrel jack, an ICSP header and a reset button.

How to use Arduino UNO Pins

As explained above, the 14 digital input/output pins can be used as input or output pins by using pinMode(), digitalRead() and digitalWrite() functions in arduino programming. Each pin operates at 5V and can provide or receive a maximum of 40mA current, and has an internal pull-up resistor of 20-50 KOhms which are disconnected by default.  Out of these 14 pins, some pins have specific functions as listed below:

  • Serial Pins 0 (Rx) and 1 (Tx): Rx and Tx pins are used to receive and transmit TTL serial data. They are connected with the corresponding ATmega328P USB to TTL serial chip.
  • External Interrupt Pins 2 and 3: These pins can be configured to trigger an interrupt on a low value, a rising or falling edge, or a change in value.
  • PWM Pins 3, 5, 6, 9 and 11: These pins provide an 8-bit PWM output by using analogWrite() function.
  • SPI Pins 10 (SS), 11 (MOSI), 12 (MISO) and 13 (SCK): These pins are used for SPI communication.
  • In-built LED Pin 13: This pin is connected with an built-in LED, when pin 13 is HIGH – LED is on and when pin 13 is LOW, its off.
Arduino UNO Pins explained

Along with 14 Digital pins, there are 6 analog input pins. Each of them provide 10 bits of resolution, i.e. 1024 different values. They measure from 0 to 5 volts but this limit can be increased by using AREF pin with analog Reference() function.  

  • Analog pin 4 (SDA) and pin 5 (SCA) also used for TWI communication using Wire library.

Arduino Uno has two other pins as explained below:

  • AREF: Used to provide reference voltage for analog inputs with analogReference() function.
  • Reset Pin: Making this pin LOW, resets the microcontroller.

Hope this article titled Arduino UNO Pins explained is useful to you. Please read Install PIP for Python on Windows

Install PIP for Python on Windows

Hello People. This article discusses how to Install PIP for Python on Windows. PIP is a package management system to install and manage software packages written in Python. PIP stands for “preferred installer program” or “Pip Installs Packages.” It is a utility to manage PyPI package installations from the command line.

If you are using an older version of Python on Windows, you may need to install PIP. You can install PIP on Windows by downloading the installation package, opening the command line, and launching the installer.

Check if PIP is Already Installed in your PC

PIP is automatically installed with Python 2.7.9+ and Python 3.4+ and it comes with the virtualenv and pyvenv virtual environments. So check if PIP is already installed.

1. Launch the command prompt window:

  • Press Windows Key + X.
  • Click Run.
  • Type in cmd.exe and hit enter.

Alternatively, type cmd in the Windows search bar and click the “Command Prompt” icon.

2. Type in the following command at the command prompt:

pip help

If PIP responds, then PIP is installed. Otherwise, you will see an error saying the program could not be found.

Install PIP for Python on Windows

Installing PIP

Follow the steps below to install PIP on Windows.

Download PIP get-pip.py

Before installing PIP, download the get-pip.py file.

1. Launch a command prompt if it isn’t already open. To do so, open the Windows search bar, type cmd and click on the icon.

2. Then, run the following command to download the get-pip.py file:

curl https://bootstrap.pypa.io/get-pip.py -o get-pip.py

Installing PIP on Windows

To install PIP type in the following:

python get-pip.py

If the file isn’t found, double-check the path to the folder where you saved the file. You can view the contents of your current directory using the following command:

dir

The dir command returns a full listing of the contents of a directory.

Verify Installation

Once you’ve installed PIP, you can test whether the installation has been successful by typing the following:

pip help

If PIP has been installed, the program runs, and you should see the location of the software package and a list of commands you can use with pip.

If you receive an error, repeat the installation process.

Add Pip to Windows Environment Variables

To run PIP from any location, you need to add it to Windows environment variables to avoid getting the “not on PATH” error. To do so, follow the steps outlined below:

  1. Open the System and Security window by searching for it in the Control Plane.
  2. Navigate to System settings.
  3. Then, select Advanced system settings.
  4. Open the Environment Variables and double-click on the Path variable in the System Variables.
  1. Next, select New and add the directory where you installed PIP.
  2. Click OK to save the changes.

Step 5: Configuration

In Windows, the PIP configuration file is %HOME%\pip\pip.ini.

There is also a legacy per-user configuration file. The file is located at %APPDATA%\pip\pip.ini.

You can set a custom path location for this config file using the environment variable PIP_CONFIG_FILE.

Upgrading PIP for Python on Windows

New versions of PIP are released occasionally. These versions may improve the functionality or be obligatory for security purposes.

To check the current version of PIP, run:

pip --version

To upgrade PIP on Windows, enter the following in the command prompt:

python -m pip install --upgrade pip

This command uninstalls the old version of PIP and then installs the most current version of PIP.

Downgrade PIP Version

Downgrading may be necessary if a new version of PIP starts performing undesirably. To downgrade PIP to a prior version, specifying the version you want.

To downgrade PIP, use the syntax:

python -m pip install pip==version_number

For example, to downgrade to version 18.1, you should run:

python -m pip install pip==18.1

Hope this article on how to Install PIP for Python on Windows is useful to you. Please read What is Blockchain Technology

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